Tungsten carbide-Cobalt - Behaviour
Uptake behaviour into cells - endocytosis
To date, it is unknown which uptake mechanisms are exactly used by cells to incorporate WC-Co nanoparticles.more...
Micro scale WC-Co particles were observed in macrophages and nano-scale particles in different vertebrate cell lines [1,2].
Lison, D. & Lauwerys, R. (1990), Environ Res 52, 187-198.
- Busch, W. et al. (2010), BMC Genomics /// 11, 65.
Behaviour in the body
WC-Co particles taken up by the body are detectable in the blood and are excreted via the urine.more...
For hard metal particles investigations on micro-size particles have been conducted for comparison. According to investigations conducted up to now, the assumption of differing modes of actions of nanoparticles compared to micro-sized material due to their small size has not been confirmed. The comparison of the biological effects showed merely differences in the effect strength . WC-Co particles are likewise toxic, but exposure is nearly exclusively occupational and can be avoided by suitable protection clothes.
Ding, M. et al. (2009), Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 241, 260-268.
Behaviour in the environment
To date, there are no data available regarding the environmental behaviour of WC-Co nanoparticles.