Cellulose - Uptake
Uptake into the human body
Nano cellulose is mainly used in medical implants [1,2], and in wound care applications. So it comes into direct contact with the tissue. The roles of the lung, the skin, and the gastrointestinal tract as the main entrance gates take a back seat. Bacterial cellulose nano-films are not considered toxic.more...
In combination with silver chloride, antibacterial pads are made . Microcrystalline cellulose, however is used as a food additive E460 and also in the pharmaceutical industry. It serves as dietary fibre for low-calorie foods, as a release agent or as a carrier. There are reservations against the use of microcrystalline cellulose in the food sector, e.g. for the production of sauces and low-calorie preparations, because the intestinal walls are permeable for microcrystalline cellulose. In pharmacy, it is applied as a binder and carrier for the manufacture of pills .
Eyholzer, C et al (2011) Biomacromolecules 12 (5), 1419–1427
Borges, AC et al (2011) Acta Biomaterialia 2011
- Klemm, D et al (2011) Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, Volume 50, Issue 24, pages 5438–5466
- Mikrokristalline Cellulose : Roempp online
Uptake and Risk for Environmental Organisms
Currently, there are few studies that deal with the eco-toxicological potential of nano-cellulose. Nano cellulose possesses antimicrobial properties, i.e. the growth of bacteria and fungi is effectively suppressed.more...
This effect is due to the strong binding of the cellulose fibers to water, which thus is removed from the environment . If, however, sufficient water for bacterial growth is present, microorganisms can also be used for the production of nano-cellulose. The enzymatic activity of bacteria and fungi is used for the secession of single nano-cellulose fibers from the complex networks of naturally occurring cellulose.
In the luminescent bacteria test nanocellulose caused no acute toxicity, even though high concentrations were used. A NOEC of ≥ 100 mg/l was derived. However, nano-cellulose fibers limited the movement of water fleas. This effect is due to the non-uniform distribution of fibers in water and is purely mechanical in nature. There is no evidence of a direct toxic effect of nano-cellulose .
After a comprehensive toxicological characterisation of nano-crystalline cellulose in nine aquatic species (including fish, water fleas, algae) of various stages of development and in a rainbow trout liver cell line, no harmful potential to aquatic inhabitants was identified . There was no, or only a low toxicity observed in experiments.